açıklamalı metin için TIKLAYINIZ
WHERE DO WE STAND
Man, at the dawn of the
21st century, has created a new world for himself. The future is now full of hopes,
worries, uncertainties, dreams and thrills.
developments in the fields of communication and transportation, in
addition to other developments brought on by science and technology, have
transformed the world, making it a smaller place.
Mankind has the world
virtually in the palm of its hand. We are now in a position where we have
a much broader outlook. Mankind has become global
in all of his deeds.
So where do we go from
here? What is to happen from this point onwards?
Bipolarization, namely East
versus West and North versus South, has in large part lost its
significance. The world will become a place where borders no longer exist.
We will come face to face
with a world where changes come at the speed of light and where events
that unfold take place on several planes at the same time.
This will be an altogether
different world and generations that follow will be confronted with the
task of both shaping and administering such a world.
In order to better
understand what I have just stated, let us go back in history a little.
There are enormous
differences between the state of the world at the beginning of the 20th
century and the state of the world at the end of it.
discoveries such as the telescope, microscope, steam, electricity,
telephone, television, jet engine, nuclear energy, satellites and the
Internet have brought about developments which were previously
With these developments,
the world has been divided into two: strong, rich and developed counties
with powerful weapons, on the one hand, and countries that live under very
harsh circumstances on the other.
It is largely Europe that
has been the centre of the all the developments that have taken place in
the last two centuries.
Westphalia, which gave
birth to the concept of equal sovereign states, was followed by the French
Revolution. This, in turn, was succeeded by "nations," and
"nation-states" comprised of free citizens.
In addition to science and
technology, there have also been major advances in the areas of education,
health and industrialization.
Two horrific wars, the
first beginning in 1914 and the second in 1939 erupted in Europe. These
wars resulted in the loss of millions of lives, disintegration of empires,
the end of colonialism and the birth of independent states. Then came .
ideological conflict. It started once again in Europe and later spread to
other countries of the world.
There was fascism. There
was communism. And there was democracy, which was left in a situation
where it had no choice but to defend itself.
It is a well-known fact
that ideological conflicts rest on issues such as how nations are to be
governed, how development is to be brought about and how wealth is to be
The United Nations, which
was founded in 1945, has made significant contributions to the
preservation of world peace and to the peaceful resolution of conflicts.
Founded by around 50 countries, the United Nations now has 190 members.
TOGETHER, LIVE TOGETHER !!
"Work together, live
together" is the motto of the United Nations.
The United Nations, on the
one hand, works to preserve world peace and, on the other, deals with
other problems that confront humanity.
Member states of the United
Nations, by accepting its system, have in fact come to possess certain
common principles of governance.
In the period that followed
World War II, it was once again impossible to arrive at world peace.
Ideological conflicts and related debates simply did not cease.
The fact that nuclear
weapons and intercontinental missiles were capable of destroying the
entire world, brought on a different kind of nightmare. This period, called
"the Cold War," lasted for 45 years.
The Soviet State System,
which was based on Marxist ideology, started to crumble with the fall of
the Berlin Wall and finally collapsed with the concepts of
"Glasnost" and "Perestroika."
As of 1989, new political
circumstances and a new political geography came into being.
The Soviet influence in
Central and Eastern Europe, in the Balkans, in the Baltics, in the
Caucasus and in Central Asia ceased to exist and "Independent
States" were born.
All of these States,
including the Russian Federation, have adopted "market
economies" as opposed to "Marxist economies" and have opted
for "democratic rule" instead of "communist rule."
Moreover, from the
beginning of the 1980s, effectiveness and productivity, came to top all
other administrative criteria, irrespective of the type of rule.
Throughout the period
extending from Adam Smith to Marx and Keynes, either some or
all of economic activity, if not entirely, has been in the hands or the
control of the State.
With Hayek and Friedman, it
was once again back to Adam Smith. To them, the role of the State in the
economy was to be completely changed. To them, the State should have
nothing to do with economic activity. The economy should be left to the
individuals, the markets should regulate themselves with their own
dynamics, and there should be competition. This way, effectiveness and
productivity will be achieved.
The aim is to utilize
scarce resources for the benefit of mankind, without any going to waste.
It is not possible for a
state that is involved in economic activity to govern properly and to be
free from corruption and waste.
This is called market
economy and there will be a transition from international to universal
Democracy, human rights and
the market economy are the new guides of mankind.
Better governance is one of
today's foremost topics.
Development and overcoming
poverty have become global issues.
AWARENESS, COMMON STANCE
The United Nations,
especially with the various conferences and meetings that it has organized
in the last tens years, has been very instrumental in creating a common
awareness of problems that concern the entire human race. It has also been
pivotal in the adoption of a common stance with respect to such problems.
Meetings organized by the
United Nations on issues such as children's rights, struggle against
poverty, rapid population growth, protection of the environment, housing
and settlement and on issues concerning women are significant in
demonstrating how much the whole of humanity is being embraced.
How nation-states ought to
reconcile independence and sovereignty with solidarity, coexistence and
cooperation has evolved over time.
Regional institutions such
as the EU in Europe, NAFTA in North America, MERCOSUR in Latin America and
ASEAN and APEC in the Far East remain operational. And organizations such as
WTO, OECD, BSEC and the OIC can be added to the list.
People, at the beginning of
the 21st century, are engaged in a genuine effort to preserve world peace,
to protect the Earth and to alleviate poverty.This is what "globalization"
The European Union is an
indispensable model for global cooperation.
People who have lived
through the horrors of World War II have united around the motto,
"Europe should unite and there ought to be no more wars."
The Common Market, which
was set up by six countries in 1957, has developed in the last 45 years.
Firstly, it has become an economic union of 15 countries with a single
market, a common currency and a customs union. It has also established
unity in law. Most recently, it has focused on political unity.
Between most of the member
states, borders no longer exist.
Currently, the questions of
governance and enlargement are being debated. Following the dissolution
of the Soviet Union, a European Union of 28 states including the 12
countries and Turkland, who have applied, is forming.
STATE OF AFFAIRS
The general outlook at the
beginning of the 21st century is not very bright and world states have
become aware of cross-border problems.
The world population, which
was 2 billion at the beginning of the last century, reached 6 billion at
the end of it.
The human being is the most
dangerous threat to the Earth. He is threatening to deplete the Earth of
its rich natural resources and this would be
the end of everything. These resources are already insufficient to feed
the hungry billions even today.
The root of all of these
problems is population growth. Migration, the ever-crowding
of cities and even terrorism are all results of rapid population growth.
The world today faces the problem
of poverty. Per capita GNP of 70
countries are less than it was 20 years ago. A billion people survive on
less than $1 a day. Half of the world
population earns less than $2 a day.
A significant portion of
the world population has no access to education and medical services. Terrorism, drugs,
smuggling, contagious diseases are among the common problems of humanity.
This is the age of
information. Correct. However, how will it be the age of "prosperity,
peace and stability?" How will prosperity for all be achieved? This
is the main problem!The only hope is to fully
embrace democracy, human rights and the market economy.
The United Nations
conference on "Sustainable Development and Combating Poverty"
which will be held in Johannesburg in September, will deal with one of the
major topics of global concern.
World Economic Forum that
was held in New York and the Social Forum, which convened in Porto
Allegro, have brought new dimensions to the on going debate.
The question of whether
"to grow or to share" is still on the agenda. United Nations
Secretary General Kofi Annan, says in a statement that: "The poor are not the
victims of globalization. The problem rather is: They haven't been
involved in the global market, but remained outside of it."
Robert wade, one of the
members of the London School of Economics says: "Global income
inequality has become widespread during the last 20 years. It is not
enough to defend globalization. There is the need for international
institutions to integrate more with the world economy."
Development Minister Claire Short says: "Globalization will
bring a huge wealth. This, in turn, can be used to reduce the worldwide
poverty and to remedy global scale injustice"
James C. Bennett says: "I believe that the
reason of globalization will win the battle at the end. All nations will
succeed to pass forward to democracy and market economy. However, this
process will take generations."The opinions of the World
Bank on this issue are as follows: "Globalization has
helped in many developing nations to lower poverty. But, in order to
improve the living conditions in the poorest countries, measures like
increasing trade, creating an environment conducive for investment,
improving educational and health services, helping more of the rich
countries to help the poor ones and debt relief should be taken.
AFTERMATH OF WWII
The motto after the World War II was "peace and
stability cannot be separated."
We know that the remedy for reducing poverty and
bringing about prosperity is sustainable development.
environment for eliminating poverty should be created both at national and
At the national level, protectionism will come to an end
as the market economy takes hold.
The period of resource wasting through industrial
subsidizations behind tariffs is over.
NATION STATES DO ?
Primary things that a nation state should do are:
1. Making the
private sector the engine of economic growth.
Running a budget
that is in equilibrium, even if a surplus is not generated.
Getting rid of
quotas and local monopolies.
public owned industries and public economic institutions.
state enterprises in the economy in order to increase domestic competition
as much as possible.
malpractice, subsidies and bribery as much as we can.
banking and telecommunication systems for competition and private
A GLOBAL VILLAGE
World Is Really Turning Into A "Global Village."
What kind of a century will
this new century be? What will be the characteristics of the Global World?
It is possible to make
virtual journeys via infinite information highways to the most remote
places of the world; accordingly, a massive change has taken place in all
the fields from economics to politics, from culture to science.
The whole world has turned
into a big market thanks to the Internet. The dimensions that the global
market will take in the 21st century will be extremely striking.
At the turn of the 20th
century, the Head of the U.S. Patent Department told the then U.S.
President: "everything that can be invented has already been invented.
Close down the Patents department." 4.5 million inventions have been made
Robert Millikan, the Nobel
Prize Winner in Physics in 1923, cut it short by saying: "Man has no
possibility of making use of the power of the atom" We all know what has
happened since then. Taking into consideration these examples, one could
easily conjecture that the enormous developments in science and technology
The invention of new
vaccines in the field of medicine and transplantations, the profound
improvements in genetics, the increase in the average life span, new
inventions concerning the human brain will continue and humanity will come
across many good news.
Democracy will continue to
spread and to strengthen on a global level.
New codes of conduct and
values will appear in every area from economics to politics, from culture
The state will be rebuilt
according to the needs of the century, thereby gaining a structure that
allows it to enact at a level closest to its citizens.
The power and the activity
of the civil society will also increase giving a new dimensions to
participation. There will be a transition from representative to
environment will turn the world into a single market that operates for 24
hours, the concepts of time and place will lose their meaning, and firms
of all sizes will be able to do business on a global level.
What matters will no
longer be the origin of the firms, but rather where they produce thereby
providing employment and welfare.
The development of the
global market will make the international finance system an
integrated whole; the transparency in public administration and the
struggle against malpractice will attain a cross-border characteristic and
The wealth of the nations
will be judged by the qualities of their human resources. Therefore, the
democratization of the processes of gaining access to information and of
using information will become very important.
Health care and education
will become public services which should be provided to the whole of
The conscience of space and
the planet will develop and the collective efforts against the pollution
of the environment will strengthen.
transportation will become cheaper thanks to the developments in
technology; circulation of goods, services and capital on a global level
will become faster.
The international economic
and political relations will mainly consist of the additions of regional
groupings to each other. The countries left outside these groupings will
The most significant result
of all these developments will be that no country or state will have the
standards of its own in politics, economy or human rights. No state will
be able to claim "I do what I like, I solve my problems in my own way. And
that interests no one." We are at a point where national security is
attained by collective security arrangement.
WHERE DO WE
In the globalized world, it is of great
importance to take the necessary timely precautions in order to ease an
economic crisis before it causes great harm to the world economy. The
world talks about the idea of forming a new finance architecture for the
The 20th century witnessed periods when
the belief in democracy weakened or faded by the apprehensions for food or
The greatest danger facing the
globalizing world is also the same. This world should not be a world of
"the most wealthy" and the "most deprived." The fear of unemployment and
the profound income inequalities brought about by globalization can only
be eliminated by policies and precautions which take the human factor as
its focus. In that respect, a new and important role should be played by
the nation states. Only those states who perform this duty and take the
necessary precautions can take the benefit of the opportunities created by
Globalization is not an ideology, but a
concrete and dynamic phenomenon gaining new dimensions every day.
Being against such a dynamic concrete
phenomenon does not stop the process from developing. The process will go
on. Besides the new opportunities and better living conditions provided by
the globalization, those who lose their jobs because of this process,
those who fear the weakening of local traditions and national conscience,
those who see the environment under threat and the possibility of social
and political turmoil in some countries constitute the painful points
For overcoming these difficulties, the
duty of the states and of the people is to be well aware of the
circumstances of the globalizing world, to adapt to these circumstances
and to find a good place in this new order. I believe that qualified human
resources equipped with a good education can overcome the above-mentioned
A world is sought which is more
beautiful, greener, more peaceful, healthier, more secure and one in which
the people get a fairer share of the world's wealth.
Working enthusiastically to achieve such
a goal, which is for the benefit of all, is the prerequisite for the
humanity for realizing this goal. The world of today is better than that
of yesterday. The world of tomorrow should be better that of today. It
should be a world in which the whole humanity lives happily. But this
necessitates cooperation and collaboration.
Notlarla Türkçe Açıklamalı
Metin için Tıklayınız: